watch encyklopaedia


display, which is often found on digital clocks. A.m. (ante = before, meridiem = noon) describes the period from midnight to noon.
adjustment ring
A rotating ring on the outside edge of a watch case. It is used to determine additional measured values. This can be, for example, the function of a world time or also the measurement of dive times.

edges of a ground surface, bevelled and polished to 45 degrees with exactly the same width.
Part of anchor inhibition, with the shape of a ship anchor.
anchor wheel
It forms together with the anchor the inhibition and is the last wheel in the gear.
French: "round off". Pitches whose frontal sides rub against bearing surfaces are rounded off to reduce friction.
automatic watch
With this type of watch, the movement on the arm of the wearer is mechanically converted into the lift energy by a flywheel rotor the tension spring is tensioned. The advantage of this is the more uniform power output compared to the manual hoist and the independence from external functions such as an elevator or battery change. However, the clock must be moved enough.
auto-quartz drive
Japanese-series production manufacturer Seiko developed link of automatic drive and quartz control of the gear. The clock runs battery-free and quartz-accurate. A hand-held model with quartz control is now also on the market. Another interesting option is that the watch also memorizes the time when it lacks power (up to four years). When it is moved again, it automatically adjusts itself to the current time. (Auto relay)
azuré cut
Circular ornamental bezel for dials, e.g. for the totalizers in chronographs.



A very narrow work for very small ladies' watches.

vibration as part of the vibration system.

Glass edge or ornamental ring of a metal watch With a groove into which the watch glass is inserted. The bezel is part of the watch case. For diving watches equipped with minute markings and rotatable to set the dive time.

big date
see panorama date

blued screws
Hardened stainless steel bolts that start to cool down to about 290 ° C after cooling.

Artificial oxidation of steel parts, such as pointers, which has been common since at least the 16th century. The polished parts are gently heated until the desired blue-violet hue is achieved.
breguet spiral
Balance spiral, with the last spiral turn double-tapered and bent upwards Is. The spiral, invented by Breguet in 1795 and named after him, expands more evenly on all sides.
breguet pointers
Breguet named blued steel watch pointer in the characteristic pointed shape,
The brass plate, which is fixed to two or more points of the base plate and is fixed there with control pins and screws. The axis and wheels rotate between the bridge and the circuit board.




Round-cut stone, sometimes used as the end of an elevator crown.
Vertical groove adornment on watchcase.

Central European Time (CET)
Average local time (zone time) Of the 15th longitude, among others At Falun, through Görlitz, Zagreb and southern Albania. It applies inter alia. For Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

Circular piece of metal with a stone (stone lining) inserted into a hole. The Chaton itself is fixed in the circuit board, the bridge or the cloak by pressing or screwing.
A clamp is part of a workbench and lies on one side on the base plate, where it is fastened there with a screw. It is used to accommodate bearings for moving parts such as anchors or balance.
Movement with one or more additional mechanisms (percussion, calendar, repetition, chronograph, alarm)
Corrugated wheel at the side of the case for setting the time (or other indications such as date, second time zone) and hand

Wristwatch whose additional mechanism for measuring certain periods of time started, able to be stopped and zeroed
Precision clock, finely regulated at various locations and temperatures, and certified by the official COSC inspection body in La Chaux-de-Fonds (Chronometer certificate ). The test covers a period of 15 days and covers five different layers (crown top, bottom, left, glass top and bottom) and three different temperatures (8 °, 23 °, 38 °); For example, In category I (over 20 mm plant diameter), the average daily range is only between -4 and +6 seconds.
Scientific time measurement. This includes all time-related areas, such as astronomical and physical time determination, time computation, time transmission as well as clock engineering.




date display
Specify the day, week, or year.
double chronograph
Chronograph with two seconds hand-offs for short-term measurement, which can be stopped independently.




Raw material without escapement and tension.

The base material of which the watch parts are made is electroplated with a thin metal layer, eg Gold or rhodium plated.

Company, which exclusively deals with the assembly (remontage) of clocks, (hours, minutes and seconds), the date, weekday, month and year are also displayed, taking into account the leap years , monthly and moon phases.



fast swing
Watches with 28 800 or 36 000 half oscillations per hour

Tension spring for storing the lift energy.
Located in the feather house The caked tensile spring that stores the absorption energy.
fine content
Traditionally, the content of the precious metals is expressed in parts per thousand. 585 gold therefore represents a share of 58.5% of Feingold in the total metal. In the case of yellow gold, the metals used are usually silver and copper. The share of precious metals in carats is stated abroad. The calculation is based on the proportion of gold at 24 Kt = Feingold 100%.
flying tourbillon
Tourbillon, in which the balance, anchor and anchor wheel are placed in a single-sided cage, which turns round in the minute.
By Dubey & Schaldenbrand 1946 patented variant of the mono-rattrapante with double pointer, in which Chrono- und Schleppzeiger are coupled to each other via a spiral spring. Fly-Back literally translates to the so-called "flying zero position", by which the stop pointer can be stopped, actuated by the lower lever, and can be immediately restarted without delay. This practical device has been and is particularly used by aircraft pilots in order to measure intermediate times quickly and without great effort.




The gait is the difference between two read clockstands at 1 day difference.
Gait deviation
Due to different environmental influences, such as the temperature or position of the plant, the course may differ.
gait rest (gear duration)
Time that passes between full throttle and complete tensioning of the tension spring.
geneva stamp
(also: Geneva Seal, Poinçon de Genève) The 1886 quality mark of the city of Geneva. 1957 and 1994, the provision was revised and now covers v.a. Twelve specifications for the exact processing and adjustment of parts, but no accuracy of gauging. Only clocks whose assembly and regiment are made in the canton of Geneva can be presented.
geneva strip
Special band-shaped ornamentation on boards, bridges and goblets.
glucydur balance
Unruly from the very hard alloy copper and 2-3% beryllium , Which is called glucinium in France and is combined with the French word "dur" for "hard" to Glucydur.
Abbreviation for "Greenwich Mean Time" The meridian of Greenwich or 0 degree-longitude. The average time, based on the Nullmeridian, has been replaced by the Universal Time.

gooseneck fine-tuning
Device in the form of a swan neck for fine tuning A watch with mechanical vibration system.

Ornaments And patterns of intersecting lines (straight and curved) engraved by the machine. They are found on dials and housings of silver or gold.




The angle the oscillating balance describes between its two reversal points. Two half-vibrations are called vibrations, audible as "tick-tack".

A metal bar, which is usually rotatably mounted at the center of the round dial and points to the circular numbers. There are many shapes such as pear, arrow, cloverleaf or straight shape. They are also classified according to their usage and are named: hour hand, minute hand, second hand hand, center hand hand, chronograph hand, etc.
hand winding
The tension spring is straightened by the daily winding with the elevator crown




Today's most commonly used shock protection for watches.
Designations For all advertisements. This includes, for example, displays such as the calendar, the moon phases, or the time of other time zones.

Ensures the step-wise, regular running of mechanical watches, recognizable by ticking. The escapement wheel transfers the energy from the gear train to the gear regulator (eg balance) by stopping it at each vibration. After the kick-off, the balance oscillates without a drive and blocks the escapement wheel until the next kick-off.




Synthetic rubies, which reduce the wear and friction of the wheels.
jumping hour
In a window, usually at the upper edge of the dial, there is a disc with the hour digits jumping hourly




Additional switching mechanism, eg
Designation for the dimensions of a clockwork, now often used synonymously for the work.
Weight unit. A Kt = 200 milligrams (mg)




lifting crown
See crown
lifting shaft
Shaft , to the outer end of which the crown is attached.
light indices
See tritium

local time
All time determined by astronomical observations. It fluctuates daily in the rhythm of the equation. The local time of two places differs from one another by the difference in their geographical length. The mean local time for larger areas is the zon period.




Manufacturer who makes the work as well as the other essential parts of the watch itself Strict sense only about 14 manufacturers to this genre. These include:

Audemars Piguet
Patek Philippe
Universal Genève
Vacheron & Constantin

mechanical watch
Classic watch type without electronic vibration system.
Compact swing rotor of an automatic watch, Which can be integrated into the movement by its smaller diameter and can therefore fully exploit the housing height.
mineral glass
Mineral crystal (hardness 5 Mohs), not scratch-resistant.
The 60th part of an hour and the 1440th part of a day.
mohs hardness
Different scratch hardness and grinding hardness are differentiated. The Mohs hardness measures the scratch hardness as the resistance that a mineral counteracts when scratching with a pointed sample. Mohs chose ten different hard minerals as comparisons, and gave them degrees one to ten. This scale begins with talc (hardness 1) and ends with diamond (hardness 10).
moon phase
In addition to the time, the moon phase is also displayed.
Because of the lower construction cost less expensive version of the trailing-chronograph or rattrapante with only one stop pointer and two chronograph pushers. When the lower pusher is held, the stop pointer stops to read the intermediate time, and jumps to the position that it would have taken when it stopped without a stop. The possible difference interval is thus a maximum of 60 seconds.

movement retainer ring
Made of metal (for low-priced watches, also made of plastic), the ring that fills the space between the case and the factory and protects the work, sometimes also protects against impacts.




alloy of iron, nickel, chrome, titanium and beryllium for the production of balance spirals, which are characterized by their good antimagnetic and temperature-compensating Properties.


onion crown
Onion-shaped elevator crown.


One of the six platinum metals (platinum, iridium, osmium, palladium, rhodium, rhutenium).
It was used as a cheaper alternative to platinum because of the relatively low price. For a time, the price of palladium has risen above that of platinum. White Gold is among others know from palladium addition and has also become more expensive.
panorama date
Large date display by two concentrically arranged number rings.
Special cloud-shaped ornamentation on boards, bridges and globes.
Most precious metal. After Platinum was already known in North Africa and South America around 1500 BC, it fell into oblivion over a period of 2000 years and was not used until 1850 by Louis Cartier as jewelery. Platinum jewelery was particularly popular at the time of Art Deco. In 1924 the German geologist Dr. Hans Merensky discovered the largest platinum storage in the world to the west of Johannesburg. There are only a few finds of this rare metal all over the world. For a single ounce platinum (31.1 g), about ten tons of ore must be mined.
Platinum is more solid, tougher and heavier than other jewelery metals. Therefore, its processing is extremely complex; Special machines and tools have to be used for this purpose. Platinum is mainly processed with a fineness of 950/000 (ie purer than the usual gold alloys).
watches scale that allows the reading of the pulse rate per minute.



quartz watch
Timepiece with no spring, balance or escapement.
In a quartz movement, a crystal is vibrated Brought about. The uniform oscillation is now used to drive a motor with the help of a chip, ie an integrated circuit. The advantage is the very high gait accuracy and the small space consumption, the disadvantage of the environmental poisoning by the battery and the dependence on the battery change.




Part of the elevator system of the watch.

This type of watch dominates as the only big pointer of the minute hands, while the hour and second hands are decentrally declining in smaller dial ranges.
raw material
The raw Parts of a watch, such as blanks, wheels, levers and screws, manufactured, sold and sold by the manufacturer. The watchmaker adjusts the parts precisely to each other, refines and refines the movement and finally builds it into a housing for resale. The largest raw material manufacturers have been operating in Switzerland since the 18th century.
Fine adjustment of a watch with a mechanical vibration system. There are different methods and qualities: With normal regulation, the watch's gear is measured with "dial top" and "crown top" and adjusted to a maximum of 30 seconds of gear deviation. In the case of regulation in different positions, the system is regulated in 2, 5 or 6 positions, approximately horizontally: "top of the dial", "lower dial" and vertical: "crown top", "crown left", "Crown right", "crown down". When the temperature compensation is adjusted, the gait is measured and regulated at 4 °, 20 ° and 36 ° C for 24 hours each.
Additional clockwork of a clock, that may acoustically accent minutes, quarter-hours and / or hours.
retrograde display
the concerned hand runs reverse
rhodium plating
Platinum metals and is applied as a bright-looking white-looking coating to other metals. This gives jewelry more brilliance. It is also possible to prevent the tarnishing of silver or silver plated objects by rhodium plating. Another advantage of the rhodium coating is its extremely antiallergic property in skin contact. Limitations result from the price (approx. 80,000 euros per kg) and due to the fact that titanium or stainless steel can only be covered after previous gilding.
The flywheel weight of the automatic elevator, either in the common variant over the entire housing width parallel to the work circle ) Or as a micro-motor integrated into the movement.




sapphire glass
Precious artificially manufactured glass with the highest hardness and scratch resistance (9 Mohs), only surpassed by diamond.
satin finish
A velvety, soft gloss finish (out of satin).

sealing ring
A waterproof watch comes with at least one sealing ring on the case cover, the glass and the crown provided.

shifter-weel chronograph
Classic chronograph type to which the start, stop, and zero position of the hands is controlled via a nine-toothed column wheel, also referred to as a shift wheel. The craft of very sophisticated manufacture of this technique is now only carried out in rare cases. That's why clocks with this design, which was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s, are today very popular collectors' pieces.
ship chronometer
Watches carried on ships, usually with Chronometer inhibitory and gimbal suspension of the factory case.
This type of chronograph was formerly called a double-hand chronograph or a "second", a synonym for this is the Rattrapante (from French Rattraper = retrieve). The trailing pointer, a second large stop pointer, is stopped to stop an intermediate time; When released, it jumps to the position of the other stop pointer and continues to run synchronously with it. This can be any number of intermediate times (except for a few seconds).
screw unrivalry
As the name implies, the unrivalry has screws that can influence the mass and thus the moment of inertia of the watch.

small seconds
seconds display, decentrally, not in the center of the dial.

screw-in bottom
Threaded bottom screwed into the watch case.
screw-in crown
The case is screwed to the body to provide complete water tightness . First used by Rolex in the Oyster model in 1926, and tested a year later by the Mercedes Channel through the passage of the English Channel.
After the minute, the second division of the hour. By dividing the day into 24 hours, the second is the 86400. Part of a middle day and thus astronomically determined by the rotation of the earth.

second hand
Contrary to decentralized small seconds displayed in the center of the dial second.

shock protection
Resiliently supported stone bearings of the balancing shaft ensure that their pegs do not break during impacts or falling down. The most common shock protection is now Incabloc, another is Kif-Flector.
Around the clock a more filigree appearance Bridges, blanks, dials and, if necessary, rotors are sawn out so that as little material as possible is left over, and an ornamental ornament is visible through the glass of the watch and the glass bottom. This is particularly complex with chronographs, which have considerably more parts to process than simple watches.
Skeletal works are often still decorated with fine engravings and chisels. There are manual and mechanical (computer-controlled) skeletons.
Semicircular groundwork on work or housing parts.
spiral spring
The spiral spring forms together with the balance the vibration system. It consists of a thin flat wire, usually made of Nivarox.

stainless steel
A non-rusting steel, which today is indispensable in the watch industry. Stainless steel can be an alloy of nickel and chromium or even molybdenum and tungsten with steel. Stainless steel has been used in watchmaking since the beginning of the 1930s.
see Chronograph
New luminous material that has also been used in place of tritium.
Swiss Made
In Switzerland, has been set up, regulated and controlled by the manufacturer, and if it contains at least 50% of all components of Swiss manufacture (calculated on the basis of value) and subject to technical control in Switzerland.




Clock scale for measuring the speed. If a chronograph is used to start the second hand at a kilometer, the speed will be displayed when the next kilometer is reached on the tachymeter scale.
Diving watches, diving watchWater tightness. As a rule, these watches are watertight up to a depth of at least 100m (10 bar pressure). Furthermore, the readability plays an important role as well as a lunette that rotates only in one direction to set the dive time.
tension spring
A metal spring loaded in a feather house that stores the energy supplied either by hand lift or automatic lift.

Three-digit tablet
A large wheel bridge, which covers the work to three quarters. A specialty of Glashütter watch manufactury.
Recently used for watch cases, gray-looking metal, Due to its combination of properties such as lightness and resistance, has been used for a long time in aircraft construction. Titanium is antiallergic and heat-absorbing and therefore comfortable to wear on the skin.
Small hands that indicate the hours, minutes, and seconds stopped by the chronograph. The arrangement of these pointers generally depends on the clockwork used, e.g. The usual Valjoux 7750 at the 6, 9 and 12.
The brilliant inventor Breguet came up with the idea of ​​a cause of inaccuracy, namely the influence of the gravity on the center of gravity The balance, by a special device. Here the anchor wheel, anchor and balance are located on a small plate in a so-called bogie, a cage sitting on the shaft of the second wheel. Just like the second wheel, the bogie rotates once a minute around itself, which compensates for any positional or centering errors.
Due to the high degree of precision achieved in the conventional way, the Tourbillon is now only an exclusive luxury addition, however It is considered to be a summit in the equipment of extraordinarily valuable watches.
Lightly radioactive luminous material for marking on the dial, now used due to the harmless radiation exposure instead of radium

true time
The true time is not a constant time measure indicated by sundials, and the different distance of the sun and the earth during the sundial Year. The deviation from the mean time is up to + 16 minutes.


All wheels and sprockets that transmit the driving force to the escapement wheel. These include:
minute wheel
ground wheel
seconds wheel
escapement wheel
All these wheels are usually riveted on their shoots.
world time clock
Time measurement instrument that displays the Earth's zonal points at different locations.

Base plate, on which the clockwork builds. The dial is fixed on the front; The rear serves as a lower bearing mount for the various wheel shafts (pegs).


year date
The date needs only to be set once a year. (In contrast to this, the leap years are also shown in the perpetual calendar.)


zone time
Unified local time, eg Central European Time (CET) for larger areas (countries or regions).

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